"Every year we hear of tragic accidents taking place in Scotland’s waters as many young people are not aware of the dangers of swimming in open water. That is why we welcomed the opportunity to work with Water Safety Scotland to develop educational materials that aim to increase awareness of water safety. We hope that this information will reach as many children and young people as possible, to ensure they are aware of the dangers that come with going into open water." Gayle Gorman, Chief Executive of Education
In partnership with Water Safety Scotland, Education Scotland has brought together partner agencies and public sector groups, including RNLI and Scottish Swimming to create these learning resources and support water safety education across all ages and stages.
Links to sections:
- Scotland’s water safety code
- Water safety and the Scottish curriculum
- Water safety and community learning development (CLD)
As part of the National Drowning Prevention Strategy 2018-2026 Water Safety Scotland aims to drive a generational change in aquatic activity in Scotland with a key focus on promoting the Water Safety Scotland Code.
Scotland’s Water Safety Code
It is important that we all stay safe in and around Scotland’s waters. Conditions in open water sites such as the sea, rivers, lochs and quarries change constantly and can be dangerous. On average, around 97 people drown in Scotland each year.
The Water Safety Code has been developed by Water Safety Scotland and represents the key information needed to help keep people safe around water. There are two versions: the full original version and an illustrated version.
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Full (English) (376 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (English) (200 KB)
The illustrated version of the Water Safety Code is also available in the following languages:
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (Chinese) (489 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (Gaelic) (260 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (French) (388 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (Polish) (331 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Punjabi (312 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (Ukranian) (322 KB)
- PDF File: Water Safety Code - Pictorial (Urdu) (312 KB)
To stay safe and enjoy Scotland’s waters follow these three lifesaving tips whenever you are in, around or near the water.
Before entering the water
Stop and think: spot the dangers
Scottish waters are cold, even in the warmer months. Immersion in cold water can cause cold water shock. Cold water shock causes the blood vessels in your skin to close and your heart rate to increase. As a result, your heart has to work harder and your blood pressure rises. Cold water shock can therefore cause heart attacks, even in people who are relatively young and healthy.
The sudden cooling of your skin also causes an involuntary gasp for breath. Breathing rates can change uncontrollably, sometimes increasing by as much as ten times their usual rate. All of these responses can contribute to a feeling of panic, increasing the chance of inhaling water directly into your lungs.
This can all happen very quickly. It only takes half a pint of water to enter the lungs for a fully grown adult to start drowning. After this water has entered the lungs, a person could die without medical care.
Before entering the water, check for any signs or flags warning of potential dangers. The depth of the water may hide underwater ledges, hidden currents and other unseen items likes rubbish and broken glass, which could cause injury.
Before you enter the water, always ensure you have a safe way out, taking account of tides, currents and winds.
In the winter months keep off all frozen water, you can’t tell how thick it is and it may break easily under pressure.
When you are in the water
stay together: stay close
- it is always safer to go into the water with someone else
- if you do get into trouble in the water or fall in unexpectedly it is important that you stay calm
- fight your instinct to swim until the effects of cold water shock pass
- the best advice is to float, lean back and extend your arms and legs
- if you need to, gently move your arms and legs around to help you float
- float until you control your breathing
- only then call for help, swim to safety or continue floating until help arrives
In an Emergency
- if you see someone in trouble do not enter the water, call for help
- look for a throw line or life ring you can throw to the person to help them float
- call 999 or 112, the emergency call handler will direct you to the relevant emergency service
- for inland waters likes lochs, canals or quarries your call will be directed to the Fire and Rescue Service
- for the sea ask for the coastguard.
To keep yourself and others safe in Scottish water:
- before entering the water Stop and Think: Spot the Dangers
- when in the water Stay Together: Stay Close
In an Emergency
- do not enter the water if you see someone in trouble
- look for a throw line or life ring to help the person float
- call 999 and wait for the emergency services
Water Safety and the Scottish Curriculum
Education plays a key role in Water Safety Scotland’s strategy. Age and stage appropriate water safety education supports all children and young people 3-18 to develop valuable lifesaving knowledge, skills and understanding.
These resources support all practitioners to further develop children and young people’s understanding and awareness of the dangers of open water, enabling them to safely participate in water based activities. There is one lesson per educational level, with a lesson progression pathway.
Watch E-Sgoil Scotland's assembly on water safety from Loch Lomond and Trossachs National Park with Olympic swimmer Duncan Scott.
E-Sgoil Scotland's digital learning space for outdoor water safety Outdoor Water Safety (thinglink.com)
PDF file: Progression Pathway (926 KB)
PDF file: Colouring-in sheet (630 KB)
PDF file: Draw a picture of yourself (25 KB)
PDF file: Early Level Lesson Plan (420 KB)
PDF file: Backpack activity (68 KB)
PDF file: First Level wordsearch (188 KB)
PDF file: Spot the difference (1.2 MB)
PDF file: Spot the difference answers (65 KB)
PDF file: First Level lesson plan (750 KB)
PPT file: First Level workshop (4 MB)
PDF file: Activity 2 print outs (1.2 MB)
PDF file: Backpack activity (62 KB)
PDF file: Water safety quiz (179 KB)
PDF file: Water safety signage activity (157 KB)
PDF file: Second Level lesson plan (446 KB)
PPT file: Second Level workshop (2.3 MB)
Third/ Fourth Level
PDF file: Summary and background (98 KB)
PDF file: Lesson Plan - Third fourth Level (353 KB)
PPT file: Water Safety Presentation (6 MB)
PPT file: Senior Phases Lesson (6 MB)
PDF file: Senior Phase Lesson Plan (415 KB)
PDF file: Scenarios A5 cards (380 KB)
Water Safety and Community Learning Development (CLD)
Water safety information and education should be inclusive and accessible to all. These resources can be used in schools, community settings and at home.
PDF file: Activity cards (905 KB)
PDF file: Water Safety Workshop lesson plan (546 KB)
PPT file: Water Safety workshop (Read only) (8 MB)
PDF file: Canal Careful digital Poster (637 KB)
PDF file: Canal Careful children's worksheet (360 KB)
PDF file: Canal Careful children's word search (377 KB)
Many partners are currently working with schools to deliver and enhance water safety education including:
- The RLSS UK's Water Safety Education Resources
- Loch Lomond and Trossach National Park resources - How to have fun and stay safe in the water
Specific content within the Scottish Curriculum, with the exception of Religious and Moral Education, is non-statutory. The Scottish Government expects schools to continue to work towards the provision of at least two hours of good quality physical education for every child each week.
The Physical Education curriculum enables the provision of a broad range of physical activities appropriate to the schools context. Swimming and other water-based activities are one possible context schools can use to deliver experiences and outcomes for Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport – an organiser in the Health and Wellbeing curriculum.
The Physical Education curriculum:
- provides learners with a platform from which they can build physical competences, improve aspects of fitness, and develop personal and interpersonal skills and attributes
- enables learners to develop the concepts and skills necessary for participation in a wide range of physical activity, sport, dance and outdoor learning
- enhances physical wellbeing in preparation for leading a fulfilling, active and healthy lifestyle
Education Scotland is working with Scottish Swimming to develop a framework for school swimming, where there is capacity, and resources that practitioners can use to effectively develop basic swimming competency within a school context.
Below is a list of accreditation and achievement sources currently available related to aquatic activity currently available through SQA:
- Physical Education - SQA
- Sports Coaching Award SCQF level 5 - SQA
- Sporting Activity Participation and Performance: Swimming SCQF Level 5
- Sports Coaching Award SCQF level 6 - SQA
- PDA Sports Coaching SCQF levels 7 and 8 - SQA
- Sport and Leisure SVQs - SQA (These can be delivered through swimming)
- PDA Swimming Teaching SCQF level 7 - SQA
- PDA Sports Coaching SCQF levels 7 and 8 - SQA
- Swimming Pool Lifeguard: Skills and Practice
- HNC/HND Sports Coaching and Development - SQA
- SVQ Achieving Excellence in Sports Performance at SCQF level 8 - SQA
Swimming in your local community
One of the best ways to stay safe around water is to know how to swim. Going swimming at your local pool is a great way of spending time together as a family. The Young Scot National Entitlement Card (Young Scot NEC) is free of charge to children and young people living in Scotland. They can use their Young Scot National Entitlement Card in some local authorities to gain discounted or free access to local swimming pools. Furthermore, young people 5-21 years old living in Scotland can now apply to access free bus travel. For more details please refer to the Young Scot website.
Learning to swim should be fun. Scottish Swimming have developed a number of water based games and activities parents and carers can do with their child in the swimming pool to help develop their child's confidence and competence in the water. You can access these activities on the Scottish Swimming website Learn to Swim.
Parents and carers can find out more about how to keep children safe in and around water on Parentzone - Keeping your child safe in the water and Water safety from Parent Club.